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Research Stay at the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS), October 2019 - February 2020

PhD student Lisa Röpke and ISATEC Master student David Brefeld spent four months of collaborative research work at the Australian Institute of Marine Science in Townsville, Australia. AIMS, Australia’s tropical marine research agency, has been investigating marine ecosystems and processes across Australia’s tropical north since 1972.

Lisa got invited to conduct her research investigating the use of antifoulants to improve juvenile coral growth and survival as part of the AIMS Reef Restoration Program.

The time at AIMS was very intense, but totally worth all the sweat and organization prior to and during the period. Before Lisa actually saw the facilities at AIMS, she had already imagined pictures from stories and photos. Now, being back in Germany, she can confidently say that AIMS and the National Sea Simulator (SeaSim) truly are a playground for coral reef scientists. The $35 million SeaSim located at the headquarters of AIMS in Townsville, is one of Australia’s major marine research facilities, designed to enable sophisticated experiments on marine organisms under simulated environmental conditions. This place proved to be a highly developed technological natural seawater running facility with millions of options to set up experiments under a diverse range of conditions. Lisa felt totally overwhelmed and happy at the same time because she knew that this was the place she had always dreamed of working in. Since AIMS is a governmental agency, safety at work was important at all times and before any project related work started, many laboratory inductions needed to be completed.  However, after Lisa & David had made it through the “administration jungle”, the planned experiments were discussed together with the collaborating scientist and ecotoxicology expert Dr. Andrew Negri and other local scientists at AIMS, Dr. Carly J. Randall and Dr. Florita Flores.



Prior to the coral spawning in November, coral colonies from the Palms and Keppel islands in the Great Barrier Reef were brought to the marine aquaria facilities in the SeaSim with the AIMS research vessel. The coral colonies stayed in the seawater tanks for a couple of nights until three nights after full moon different colonies of the same species Acropora millepora spawned and released their gametes into white nally bins. The positively buoyant gamete bundles were pipetted into smaller containers and transferred to another aquaria room for separation and washing of sperm and eggs. Afterwards, cross-fertilization of different colonies was processed in bigger containers and after a few hours only, the fertilized eggs had developed into fully functional and actively swimming coral larvae. The larvae were transferred into rearing tanks with a filtered seawater volume of 400 L each. After this night shift, the larvae tanks were checked almost every hour in order to keep the larvae healthy for all scientists who had planned to use them in their experiments. This procedure kept going for 2 weeks after spawning.

When the larvae were a couple of days old, Lisa and David started to set up some settlement assays with Crustose Coralline Algae (CCA) chips and what researchers at AIMS nicely call “fairy dust”. It basically means small shredded CCA powder, which is attractive for coral larvae and induces settlement behavior. Later on, also CCA extract was used to induce coral larvae settlement behavior. The settlement trials were tested on different surfaces, including Lisa’s specific anti-biofouling coated surfaces. Also, larvae were used for swimming behavior testings and biofilm developments on the coated surfaces were monitored fortnightly with a very handy camera trolley with a full frame camera built by technicians and engineers in the workshop at AIMS, specifically adapted to the needs of coral scientists.

All in all, this research stay proved to be more than fruitful from different points of view. Lisa and David learned to work in a very sophisticated scientific environment with many experienced and well-known scientists in coral reef ecology & restoration. Moreover, the collaborating researchers have pronounced their satisfaction with this collaboration and interest in future collaborations and knowledge exchange with Lisa and the Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT) in Bremen. First insights into the work of this collaboration will be shared at the International Coral Reef Symposium (ICRS) in Bremen this year and the Australian researchers will be in Bremen to join interesting conversations about past, present and future scientific investigations.

Fischereidaten – Ostafrika: FIDEA Workshop in Sansibar / Tansania
2. -13. März 2020, Stonetown, Hotel MARU MARU

Am ersten Tag unseres Workshops (Montag, 2. März) haben wir nach einer kurzen Begrüßung durch den lokalen Workshop-Organisator, Herrn Dr. Saleh Yahya des Meeresinstituts in Sansibar (IMS), mit einer Vorstellungsrunde begonnen und feststellen können, dass alle eingeladenen Gäste vertreten waren.

Durch die Zusatzfinanzierung der Ernährungs- und Landwirtschaftsorganisation der Vereinten Nationen (FAO) über ca. 30.000 Euro war es uns möglich, zusätzlich zu den Teilnehmern aus Sansibar, Tansania und Mozambique (FIDEA-Projektpartner) auch Vertreter der Fischerei-Institutionen von den Komoren, Seychellen, aus Mauritius, Malawi, Kenia und Sambia einzuladen.

Frau Julia Hannig von der deutschen Botschaft in Tansania war ebenfalls eingeladen und eröffnete den Workshop zusammen mit dem Vizedirektor des Tansanischen Ministeriums für Landwirtschaft, Viehzucht und Fischerei mit freundlichen und wertschätzenden Worten.

Danach wurden die UN-Ziele für nachhaltige Entwicklung und insbesondere das Ziel 14.4.1 (prozentualer Anteil der nachhaltig erwirtschafteten marinen Ressourcen) sowie die damit verbundenen Daten - und Reporting-Erfordernisse vorgestellt. Dieses Nachhaltigkeitsziel bietet den Rahmen für den Workshop.

Im Anschluss wurden dann die Systeme der Fischereidatensammlung in den Ländern Mozambique, Tansania und Sansibar von Herrn Kiran Viparthi (FAO) vorgestellt, der diese Länder als Berater zum Jahreswechsel besucht und die Experten entsprechend befragt hatte. Dabei wurden Synergien und Unterschiede aufgezeigt und die Workshop-Teilnehmer gingen der Frage nach, ob eine Vereinfachung und Standardisierung des Fischereimonitorings in der Region möglich wäre. Auch die Gäste aus anderen Länder der Region berichteten von ihren Methoden und Problemen der Datenerfassung im Fischereisektor.

Es wurde deutlich, dass derzeit diverse Methoden der Datensammlung und Archivierung in der Region verwendet werden (Details sind im Report von Herrn Viparthi nachzulesen) und dass eine Vereinheitlichung (zur Verwendung des bereits erfolgreich in Tansania verwendeten eCas-Systems) sinnvoll wäre und die Kosten reduzieren könnte. Eine grundsätzliche Herausforderung besteht vielerorts in der Zusammenarbeit zwischen den Fischereiforschungsinstitutionen und den Ministerien ihrer Länder, die für das Reporting der Fischerei gegenüber der FAO verantwortlich sind.

Am Folgetag (Dienstag, 3. März) trafen weitere Teilnehmer des Workshops ein. Der Vertreter des lokalen WIOMSA-Büros in Sansibar hielt eine Begrüßungsrede, in der er deutlich machte, dass WIOMSA den FIDEA-Workshop auch finanziell unterstütze, weil dieser von großer Bedeutung für die Region des West-Indischen Ozeans sei. Im Anschluss stellten die FAO Kollegen (Aymen Charef und Yimin Ye) den Status der Weltfischerei vor und zeigten dabei sowohl die regionalen als auch die qualitativen Unterschiede im Reporting. In der Region des westindischen Ozeans (WIO) ist das Reporting derzeit noch recht schwach und nur etwa 30% der Länder haben Angaben zu dem Anteil ihrer nachhaltig bewirtschafteten Ressourcen (SDG 14.4.1) gemacht. Weltweit sind es etwa 50% aller Länder, die ihren Verpflichtungen zum Reporting nachkommen.

Ein weiterer Schwerpunkt des Tages war die Vorstellung des Fragebogens zur nationalen Fischerei, den die FAO an die verantwortlichen Behörden der Länder schicken wird. Nach ihrer Rücksendung werden sie auswertet und auf Konsistenz geprüft, bevor die Länder-Information zur Fischerei in die regionalen und globalen Datenbanken aufgenommen wird. Der Fragebogen wurde im Detail vorgestellt und Fragen wurden zu den verschiedenen Methoden der Bestandsanalyse und zur Klassifizierung der Fischereibestände erörtert. Bei der anschließenden Diskussion wurde deutlich, dass sich die Länder in der Prioritätensetzung bzgl. der Frage, welche Bestände in die nationale Datensammlung aufgenommen werden, unterscheiden. Oft werden eher die Daten aus der Industriefischerei erhoben, während die Bestände der (lokal sehr wichtigen) Kleinfischerei weniger berücksichtigt werden.

Mittwoch, 4. März 2020

09:00

Heute startet unser dritter Tag des FIDEA Workshops. Mehrere politische Entscheidungsträger der Region, die an den ersten beiden Tage dabei waren, sind bereits abgereist und dafür sind weitere Teilnehmer für den eher technischen Teil des Workshops hinzugekommen.

Gestern Abend gab es einen Empfang im SeaResort Stonetown, der 20 Autominuten vom Zentrum Stonetowns entfernt, direkt am Strand liegt. Bei 28°C, leckerem Fingerfood, stimmiger Hintergrundmusik und kalten Getränken, bot der Abend eine erholsame Abwechslung zu dem 10-stündigen Workshoptag im Hotel MARU MARU.

Die Teilnehmer finden sich langsam ein und die FAO-Kollegen, die den Kurs heute maßgeblich durchführen werden, sortieren noch ihre Vorträge.

11:30

Derzeit sind alle Kursteilnehmer damit beschäftigt, im Länderfragebogen der FAO die Referenzliste der Ressourcen ihrer Länder zu prüfen bzw. zu vervollständigen. Nach der Mittagspause werden die FAO-Kollegen dann das FAO online-Portal (Virtual Research Environment) vorstellen und es werden dabei Beispiel-Datensätze eingesetzt, um verschiedene Bestandsanalysemethoden kennenzulernen und auszuprobieren.

Fortsetzung folgt....

Von der Vision zur Mission: All-Atlantic Ocean Youth Ambassador Sommerschule im irischen Galway

Kürzlich trafen sich in der irischen Stadt Galway, 23 junge Meeresforscherinnen und -forscher sowie leitende Mitglieder des AANChOR Projekts (u.a. Dr. Werner Ekau, ZMT) zur ersten Sommerschule des europäischen Forschungsprojekts. In einer Stadt, die an der Westküste Irlands stark vom Atlantik beeinflusst wird, wurde die Gruppe bei einem sogenannten „Icebreaker“ am ersten Abend von einer kleinen irischen Band mit traditioneller Musik unterhalten. Dass sich an diesem Abend bereits die ersten Freiwilligen fanden, den traditionellen irischen Tanz auszuprobieren, war sicherlich ein gutes Omen für eine starke Zusammenarbeit der nächsten Tage.

Mit der Sommerschule, an der Jung-Botschafter aus 14 Ländern rund um den Atlantischen Ozean teilnahmen, sollte eine Kampagne gestartet werden, für den Atlantik in der Bevölerung der Anrainerstaaten (und darüber hinaus) Aufmerksamkeit und Wertschätzung zu erlangen.

Am ersten begrüßten Sean Kyne (Minister of State for Gaeilge, the Gaeltacht and the Islands) sowie Mitglieder der EU Kommission (wie der Directorate-General for Research & Innovation, European Commission, John Bell oder Sieglinde Gruber) und Vertreter verschiedener Institute und Organisationen NOAA, das brasilianische Ministerium, Südafrikas Wissenschaft und Technologie Department, die Teilnehmenden. „Die junge Generation muss die Dinge anders machen, wenn wir in der Zukunft eine bessere Welt wollen. Und wie wir das machen ist die große Frage, der sich die Jugendbotschafter hier bei dieser Sommerschule stellen sollen“, appellierte beispielsweise Staatsminister Kyne. „Macht das Unmögliche möglich... aber – no pressure!“, fügte der Leiter des irischen Meeresinstituts in Galway, Dr. Peter Heffernan hinzu.

Präsentationen, Inspiration und Diskussionen

Anschließend fanden Workshops zu Themen wie Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, Soziale Medien oder Projektplanung statt, bei denen die Atlantik-Botschafter und sehr viel Zuspruch und Unterstützung von einem internationalen Team erhielten. Begleitet wurden wir dabei von einem Kameramann und einer Soziale-Medien-Expertin, was uns deutlich machte, dass hier doch etwas Großes entstand.

Bis zur Abschlussveranstaltung ging es nun darum, Ideen zu entwickeln. Diese Ideen sollen nach dem Galway (2013) und dem Belém Statement (2017) entwickelt werden, welche besonders auf Verbesserung der Ozeankenntnisse in den lokalen Gemeinden und der Wiederherstellung des Atlantischen Gesundheitszustandes ausgelegt sind. Mit den Abkommen als Leitfäden, sollen nun Projekte und Kampagnen entwickelt werden. Doch die eigentliche Aufgabe ist es dabei, die Menschen in den lokalen Gemeinden der verschiedenen Länder zu erreichen, um ihnen nahezubringen, was für eine wichtige Rolle der Atlantik spielt, nicht in Bezug auf die Fischerei, und Tourismus, sondern auch das globale Klima und lokale Kultur und Tradition.

Als Botschafter sollen wir nun die Wissenschaftskommunikation zum Thema Atlantik stärken.

Insgesamt waren es für mich sehr intensive und fantastische fünf Tage mit einer Gruppe sehr inspirierender Menschen. Jetzt sind wir alle wieder zurück in unseren Heimatländern und haben die nächsten sechs Monate Zeit, den unsere Ideen zu verwirklichen. Im Februar 2020 werden wir unsere Pläne in Brüssel vor der EU-Kommission vorstellen.

Von Natalie Prinz, All-Atlantic Ocean Youth Ambassador, Deutschland

 

Die All-Atlantic Ocean Youth Ambassador Sommerschule fand vom 24. bis 27. August in Galway (Irland) statt und wurde initiiert vom AANChOR Projekt der EU Kommission (All AtlaNtic Cooperation for Ocean Research and Innovation). Das ZMT leitet das Projekt im Auftrag des Konsortiums Deutsche Meeresforschung (KDM) und übernimmt die beiden Arbeitspakete Capacity Development und Information & Data Sharing; AANChOR ist ein gemeinsames Projekt von KDM-Mitgliedern, Ministerien, Fördereinrichtungen, Regierungsstellen, zwischenstaatlichen und nichtstaatlichen Institutionen sowie Beratungsunternehmen.

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Two weeks of joint fieldwork in Nakasaleka District on Kadavu Island, Fiji

This fieldwork period was jointly planned with a team from USP’s Institute of Marine Resources (IMR; Dr. Simon Harding and RA Kalisiana Marama, Western Pacific Coastal Fisheries Project (WPCFP), https://www.usp.ac.fj/index.php?id=wpcfp), and our co-supervised intern Ulamila Matairakula, who has joined SOCPacific for 6 months (Sept 2019 - Feb 2020). In fact, this means that we tried to combine two project activities during this trip: 1) a Marine Resource Value (MRV) survey designed and conducted by IMR to explore the economic value of coastal fisheries in Kadavu, with 2) SOCPacific’s fieldwork on the sociocultural value of these fisheries and on the interwoven fisheries and conservation issues.

A good correspondence with the Kadavu Provincial Office resulted in the chance of being accompanied throughout the fieldwork in Nakasaleka District by Alipate Nakasava (Assistant Roko Tui of Kadavu) and Kelera Kuli (Conservation Officer) from the Provincial Office in Vunisea. In this District, the team was based in three villages: Matasawalevu, Kavala, and Lomanikoro.

Elodie and Annette, often accompanied by Ulamila, conducted qualitative interviews and observations in Matasawalevu (in direct proximity of the Naiqoro Passage Spawning Aggregation Marine Reserve, established in November 2018) and Kavala (in the same bay as the Fisheries station, as well as where the ferry from the capital arrives twice a week). These were in the format of talanoa sessions with various community members in both formal and informal settings, with the least disruption to their planned events and daily activities (e.g., while preparing fish). The interviews covered several topics, such as local fishing methods, the connections between local fisheries management and culturally significant fishes, and changes since the establishment of this gazetted marine protected area). The IMR team visited 12 villages in Nakasaleka District (Matasawalevu, Nukuvou, Vacalea, Tiliva, Lavidi, Kavala, Solotavui, Lawaki, Lomanikoro, Nakaugasele, Nakaunakoro, Nakoronawa) and a few settlements for the MRV survey, based on questionnaires about fishing and gleaning activities.

In addition, the team organized drawing sessions in two primary schools, Tiliva District School and Nakasaleka District School, following the strict transdisciplinary protocol developed with specialists from IRD, aiming to explore the views of school communities on the sea and the resources therein. The activity involved children from Class 4 to Class 8, and was facilitated by the head teachers and teachers of the respective schools, who we would like to warmly thank for their welcome and assistance.

This joint fieldtrip allowed for the reinforcement of the SOCPacific’s partnership with USP, in particular with IMR. It aimed to establish interdisciplinary links between SOCPacific and WPCFP, to be pursued in 2020 with the cross-analysis of the data we have collected and the feedback we will provide to the people of Nakasaleka District.

We are deeply grateful for the hospitality the team has received in Nakasaleka District, and for being allowed to learn a lot.

Photos by Elodie Fache

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A group of sci­ent­ists from Leib­niz Centre for Trop­ical Mar­ine Re­sear­ach (ZMT), the Royal Neth­er­lands In­sti­tute for Sea Re­search (NIOZ) and MARUM – Cen­ter for Mar­ine En­vir­on­mental Sci­ences went to Cur­a­cao to gather data on the mod­ern and fossil reefs sur­round­ing the is­land. Their ex­ped­i­tion will last from Au­gust 23rd un­til Septem­ber 3rd, and they will use state-of-the-art ap­proaches to un­der­stand how reefs have re­spon-ded and will re­spond to warmer cli­mates and higher sea levels.

In parallel, they will also test low-cost instruments (such as portable sonars and drones) to develop simple (and fun) methods to gather high-resolution 3D data of nearshore ecosystems. The research team as a twofold goal. First, they are set out to acquire high-resolution data on coral reefs to understand their functioning today and in the past, with the hope of using this knowledge as a key to understand future changes. Second, they aim to develop a setup to generate reproducible nearshore data that can be used not only by scientists but also by  citizens at large, e.g. elementary school pupils. This citizen science approach, if successfully developed and implemented, may allow to document benthic dynamics in an unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution in nearshore environments. In the long run, this project will allow to acquire data to advance our knowledge on how reefs responded to climate change in the past, how they are responding today and how they will likely respond in the future.

 

Coral Curacao NIOZ
Coral near Curacao | Photo: Fleur van Duyl, NIOZ

The research team as a twofold goal. First, they are set out to acquire high-resolution data on coral reefs to understand their functioning today and in the past, with the hope of using this knowledge as a key to understand future changes. Second, they aim to develop a setup to generate reproducible nearshore data that can be used not only by scientists but also by  citizens at large, e.g. elementary school pupils. This citizen science approach, if successfully developed and implemented, may allow to document benthic dynamics in an unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution in nearshore environments. In the long run, this project will allow to acquire data to advance our knowledge on how reefs responded to climate change in the past, how they are responding today and how they will likely respond in the future.

Coral reefs are one of the most valuable ecosystems on our planet. It is estimated that their global net value is 2.7 trillion US dollars, as they pr. Despite this immense value, we are witnessing a rapid, anthropogenically induced decline of coral reefs worldwide. It is estimated that human impacts and climate change together threaten approximately 75% of the world's coral reefs. We are at risk of losing the ecosystem services that coral reefs provide within the next 2 to 3 generations. An immediate scientific and conservation challenge is the facilitation of natural reef resilience in the face of global change. At the same time, relic reefs from ancient warmer periods of the Earth’s history are one of the best tools to understand past changes and frame possible future climate traject.

Back in 2013, the NIOZ-MARUM Tandem Cooperation was initiated with the aim of joining forces to understand the consequences of climate change and human impacts on the world oceans and coasts. Since then, Paolo Stocchi (NIOZ) and Alessio Rovere (MARUM) have started to use fossil corals to quantify tides and sea-level changes deep in the past. Using fossil reefs in the Caribbean and elsewhere as an analogue for a future warmer world, they understood that there is a growing need to model the dynamic interactions between coral reef organisms and ocean hydrodynamics (waves and tides). However, this requires the knowledge of micro-scale processes acting on much shorter time-scales than the usually long-term ones associated with climate changes. Paolo and Alessio quickly understood that their expertise alone was not enough to work on these problems. The presence at NIOZ of Fleur Van Duyl and the arrival of Andi Haas (formerly at San Diego State and Scripps, USA) brings the necessary "know-how" of experimental and theoretical approaches to turn early ideas into a novel research effort. The partnership with a researcher expert on gathering data on coral reefs with drones, Elisa Casella of the Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT), will also allow them to map selected coral reefs in Curacao with an unprecedented perspective and level of detail. The team is completed by Ciro Cerrone, a PhD student at the University of Napoli, currently working on a DAAD visiting grant at MARUM, who is expert on paleo sea level changes.

 

curaco koraal klein fleur NIOZ
Quadrant (1x1 meter) of living coral at 10 meter depth near NIOZ buoy 2. | Photo: Fleur van Duyl, NIOZ

Understanding reef resilience

Curacao presents unique characteristics that make it the “one in a thousand” destination for the research team. First and foremost, the team will take advantage of unprecedented efforts by NIOZ scientists, who have created the longest available time series on coral reef benthic cover along the reefs Curacao and Bonaire. This time series, consisting of 24 permanent benthic photo quadrants has been documenting community dynamics across different water depths since 1973. A drastic decline in coral cover from 70 per cent to less than 10 per cent was recorded from 1973 until 2010. However, despite the devastating reports from many other coral reef locations around the world within the last decade, these Caribbean reefs showed a slight recovery from 2010 until now without tangible alleviations of the overall anthropogenic pressure they were subjected to. What are the underlying mechanisms of this resilience? Paolo, Andy, Fleur and Elisa will use drones, bathymetric surveys and different types of sensors to answer this question.

Second, Curacao has preserved fossil reefs from at least two past warm periods of the Earth’s history, when sea level was higher than today and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet was likely partially collapsed. Part of the research team will investigate these reefs to understand how they relate to their modern counterparts, in terms of both community and structure. How were the fossil reefs surviving in a warmer climate? Is it possible to understand past reef resilience by comparing data on the fossil reefs to their modern counterparts? How high was sea level during these past warm periods? To answer these questions, the geologists Alessio Rovere and Ciro Cerrone will survey the fossil reefs with the aim of characterising their composition, they will map their 3D extent with a drone and will establish their elevation with a highly accurate GPS system.

Methods and expected outcomes

The research team will use the Curacao expedition to test a series of affordable, portable and easy-to-deploy mapping systems. For example, Paolo will use a Stand Up Paddleboard connected to a fishfinder, a GPS and a GoPro camera to map shallow water reefs. Elisa will employ a portable and inexpensive drone (that was registered at the Curacao Civil Aviation Authority) to gather high-resolution 3D imagery of both modern and fossil reefs. The team hopes that this will be the first step towards setting up citizen science initiatives in Curacao, in order to foster the collection of an ever-growing base of highly needed data. Using cheap and portable modern technology to gather useful data at high spatial and temporal scales may prove transformative in understanding the many processes dictating the functioning, and the resilience of reefs.

The 2019 NIOZ-MARUM Expedition to the Curacao coral reefs was born out of the shared scientific interests of multiple PIs from different Oceanographic institutions, who joined both funds and expertise to start this collaboration:

  • Paolo Stocchi (NIOZ COS) is a geophysicist whose expertise is in the numerical modelling of physical oceanographic processes.
  • Alessio Rovere (MARUM, University of Bremen) is a marine geoscientist interested in reconstructing past sea-level fluctuations during warmer periods.
  • Elisa Casella (ZMT, Bremen) is an environmental engineer specialized in using UAV platforms applied to the study of coastal environment and coastal changes
  • Andi Haas (NIOZ MMB) is a marine biologist with a strong background in coral reefs biogeochemistry and ecology.
  • Fleur van Duyl (NIOZ MMB) is a marine ecologists with close to unmatched knowledge on the ecosystem functioning of Caribbean reefs.
  • Ciro Cerrone (DAAD Visiting PhD Student, MARUM) is a geologist working on paleo sea level changes.


August 28, 2019

Modern vs Paleo corals

A few pictures showing a modern living Diploria found at -2m below sea level, and its ancient predecessors (grand grand grandma!) found at 5-10 m above sea level in Curacao. The latter were alive during the Last Interglacial Stage (125,000 years BP) when Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets retreated (because of warmer climate) and cause mean sea level to rise up to 10 m above present. 

Living Diplora NIOZ
A modern living Diploria found at -2m below sea level  | Photo: NIOZ

Old diploaria
Ancient coral from when the sea level was more than 5m above present-day because of warmer climate conditions  | Photo: NIOZ

Paolo Stocchi